Difference between revisions of "Instructional Principles and Hypotheses"

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*[[Collaboratively observe]]
*[[Collaboratively observe]]
**[[Vicarious learning]]
**[[Vicarious learning]]
*[[Deep/Reflection questions]] - term in matrix (to the left) is not the same as glossary entry, [[Deep-level question]]. (NOTE: See the recent IES practice guide on [http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/practiceguides/ "Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning"] as a great source for relevant references. See particularly the "deep questioning" recommendation (written primarily by Art Graesser).)
*[[Deep-level question]]. (NOTE: See the recent IES practice guide on [http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/practiceguides/ "Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning"] as a great source for relevant references. See particularly the "deep questioning" recommendation (written primarily by Art Graesser).)
**[[Reflection questions]]
**[[Reflection questions]]
***[[Post-practice reflection]]
***[[Post-practice reflection]]

Revision as of 23:39, 11 December 2007

Creating Instructional Principle and Hypothesis Pages

The PSLC is starting to maintain a collection of instructional principle pages. Each instructional principle page should be structured with the following headers:

  1. Brief statement of principle
  2. Description of principle
    1. Operational definition
    2. Examples
  3. Experimental support
    1. Level of support (either low, medium, or high) (See the recent IES practice guide on "Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning" for definitions of levels of support.)
    2. Laboratory experiment support
    3. In vivo experiment support
  4. Theoretical rationale (these entries should link to one or more learning processes)
  5. Conditions of application
  6. Caveats, limitations, open issues, or dissenting views
  7. Variations (descendants)
  8. Generalizations (ascendants)
  9. References

If you have a study page, your hypothesis section should make reference to at least one of these instructional principle pages. You should edit your hypothesis section to be sure it points to an instructional principle page. Then you should edit that instructional principle page so that it 1) at least has the structure above (even if all sections aren't filled in) and 2) fill in or edit sections so they are consistent with your views. A template you can copy is provided further below.

We want to keep the number of principles down, at least at the highest level if generalization, so try to reference the most general instructional principle that is appropriate. In addition to facilitating our goal of greater shared vocabulary and unification, doing so will also make it so you have less editing work to do! By pointing to more general instructional principles, others will be contributing to structuring and filling in that page in addition to you. You may also point to (from your hypothesis section) more specific instructional principle pages relevant to your study.

Be sure that the *Examples* and *Experimental Support* sections of the instructional principle page you point to also points back to your study page.

Please also add references to the literature outside of PSLC to the *Reference* section of instructional principles pages you edit. You might simply copy these from your study page's reference section and/or papers your write. By doing so, you can help others (and others can help you) identify relevant research in the field.

List of Instructional Principles and Hypotheses

From Category:Instructional Principle

List of independent variables that could become principles

From Category:Independent Variables

Cross-cutting all 3 clusters

Coordinative Learning

Interactive Communication

Refinement and Fluency



You can copy the following into an instructional principle page you want to edit and then insert existing text into appropriate sections and add text in other sections.

==Brief statement of principle==
==Description of principle==
===Operational definition===
==Experimental support==
===Laboratory experiment support===
===In vivo experiment support===
==Theoretical rationale== 
(These entries should link to one or more [[:Category:Learning Processes|learning processes]].)
==Conditions of application==
==Caveats, limitations, open issues, or dissenting views==
==Variations (descendants)==
==Generalizations (ascendants)==
[[Category:Instructional Principle]]

A (temporary!) note on editing instructional principles and hypotheses pages

An instructional principle wiki page will usually state a general hypothesis about how one instructional method is better than some other baseline or control method. For example, Mayer's multimedia principle states that using diagrams in text (one instructional method) leads to better learning than text alone (another instructional method) under certain circumstances. Instructional methods are a kind of independent variable, so they are usually described on independent variable wiki pages. However, an instructional principle is often so closely related to one of its independent variables/methods that the two wiki pages share considerable content. If so, then maybe it would be best to just have one page for both. Let's just start in and see how it turns out.

Instructional principles are related to the *hypothesis* section of study pages. The hypothesis of a study may be more study- or domain-specific whereas the associated instructional principle will be study-neutral and likely more domain general. Therefore, the wiki page documenting a project or study should have:

  • an independent variables section that refers to the wiki pages of general independent variables. These are found in the column headers of the matrix that appears on your cluster's page.
  • a hypothesis section that refers to the wiki pages of general instructional principles. These instructional principles should reference the general independent variables mentioned above.

If some of the structure above does not exist, please create it.

Learning Processes

Here's a (probably incomplete) list of learning processes with entries in the glossary. These should be used in the "theoretical rationale" section of instructional principles pages.

Co-training, Cognitive headroom, Integration, Refinement, Sense making, self-explanation

A potentially different list of learning processes can be found at Category:Learning Processes.