A Novel Writing System
PI: Julie Fiez
1.== Abstract ==
The goal of this project is to determine whether the processing of visual words can be exclusively mediated by right-hemisphere visual areas. To address this question, the project explores a novel orthography in which spoken English phonemes are graphically representing by faces, which evoke strong activation in right-hemisphere visual areas. We assess whether native English subjects can become fluent at reading this "face-based" writing system, and probe whether predominantly right-hemisphere visual areas support the processing of items displayed using this system.
PSLC General Glossary
Full Glossary  Research question
What instructional activities or methods cause students’ learning to be robust?  Dependent variables
Measures of basic learning (an immediate, near-transfer post-test) and measures of robust learning (long-term retention, far transfer and accelerated future learning)  Independent variables
Independent variables in PSLC are primarily instructional activities, methods, or treatments. Studies might also include independent variables that measure individual differences, like a language students' first language.  Hypotheses
Learning will be robust if the instructional activities are designed to include appropriate paths, and the students tend to follow those paths during instruction.  Explanation
Instructional activities influence the depth and generality of the students’ acquired knowledge components, the knowledge components’ strength and feature validity, and the student’s motivation. These in turn influence the students’ performance on measures of robust learning. That is, we take a cognitive stance, rather than a radically distributed or situated stance.
At the macro-level, instruction produces robust learning if it increases the frequency of:
* sense making processes: rederivation, adaptation and self-supervised learning * and foundational skill building processes: strengthening, deep feature perception and cognitive headroom.
At the micro-level, instruction produces robust learning if:
* The instruction is designed so that the learning event space has some target paths that would cause an ideal student to acquire knowledge that is deep, general, strong and retrieval-feature-valid. * Most students follow a target path most of the time. There are many factors outside the easy control of the experimenter or instructor, such as motivation and recall, that affect whether students actually follow the target paths designed into the instruction.
* Interactive Communication. * Coordinative Learning. * Refinement and Fluency.